Sending a response

The response must be sent using the Req object.

Cowboy provides two different ways of sending responses: either directly or by streaming the body. Response headers and body may be set in advance. The response is sent as soon as one of the reply or stream reply function is called.

Cowboy also provides a simplified interface for sending files. It can also send only specific parts of a file.

While only one response is allowed for every request, HTTP/2 introduced a mechanism that allows the server to push additional resources related to the response. This chapter also describes how this feature works in Cowboy.

Reply

Cowboy provides three functions for sending the entire reply, depending on whether you need to set headers and body. In all cases, Cowboy will add any headers required by the protocol (for example the date header will always be sent).

When you need to set only the status code, use cowboy_req:reply/2:

Req = cowboy_req:reply(200, Req0).

When you need to set response headers at the same time, use cowboy_req:reply/3:

Req = cowboy_req:reply(303, #{
    <<"location">> => <<"https://ninenines.eu">>
}, Req0).

Note that the header name must always be a lowercase binary.

When you also need to set the response body, use cowboy_req:reply/4:

Req = cowboy_req:reply(200, #{
    <<"content-type">> => <<"text/plain">>
}, "Hello world!", Req0).

You should always set the content-type header when the response has a body. There is however no need to set the content-length header; Cowboy does it automatically.

The response body and the header values must be either a binary or an iolist. An iolist is a list containing binaries, characters, strings or other iolists. This allows you to build a response from different parts without having to do any concatenation:

Title = "Hello world!",
Body = <<"Hats off!">>,
Req = cowboy_req:reply(200, #{
    <<"content-type">> => <<"text/html">>
}, ["<html><head><title>", Title, "</title></head>",
    "<body><p>", Body, "</p></body></html>"], Req0).

This method of building responses is more efficient than concatenating. Behind the scenes, each element of the list is simply a pointer, and those pointers are used directly when writing to the socket.

Stream reply

Cowboy provides two functions for initiating a response, and an additional function for streaming the response body. Cowboy will add any required headers to the response.

When you need to set only the status code, use cowboy_req:stream_reply/2:

Req = cowboy_req:stream_reply(200, Req0),

cowboy_req:stream_body("Hello...", nofin, Req),
cowboy_req:stream_body("chunked...", nofin, Req),
cowboy_req:stream_body("world!!", fin, Req).

The second argument to cowboy_req:stream_body/3 indicates whether this data terminates the body. Use fin for the final flag, and nofin otherwise.

This snippet does not set a content-type header. This is not recommended. All responses with a body should have a content-type. The header can be set beforehand, or using the cowboy_req:stream_reply/3:

Req = cowboy_req:stream_reply(200, #{
    <<"content-type">> => <<"text/html">>
}, Req0),

cowboy_req:stream_body("<html><head>Hello world!</head>", nofin, Req),
cowboy_req:stream_body("<body><p>Hats off!</p></body></html>", fin, Req).

HTTP provides a few different ways to stream response bodies. Cowboy will select the most appropriate one based on the HTTP version and the request and response headers.

While not required by any means, it is recommended that you set the content-length header in the response if you know it in advance. This will ensure that the best response method is selected and help clients understand when the response is fully received.

Cowboy also provides a function to send response trailers. Response trailers are semantically equivalent to the headers you send in the response, only they are sent at the end. This is especially useful to attach information to the response that could not be generated until the response body was fully generated.

Trailer fields must be listed in the trailer header. Any field not listed might be dropped by the client or an intermediary.

Req = cowboy_req:stream_reply(200, #{
    <<"content-type">> => <<"text/html">>,
    <<"trailer">> => <<"expires, content-md5">>
}, Req0),

cowboy_req:stream_body("<html><head>Hello world!</head>", nofin, Req),
cowboy_req:stream_body("<body><p>Hats off!</p></body></html>", nofin, Req),

cowboy_req:stream_trailers(#{
    <<"expires">> => <<"Sun, 10 Dec 2017 19:13:47 GMT">>,
    <<"content-md5">> => <<"c6081d20ff41a42ce17048ed1c0345e2">>
}, Req).

The stream ends with trailers. It is no longer possible to send data after sending trailers. You cannot send trailers after setting the fin flag when streaming the body.

Preset response headers

Cowboy provides functions to set response headers without immediately sending them. They are stored in the Req object and sent as part of the response when a reply function is called.

To set response headers:

Req = cowboy_req:set_resp_header(<<"allow">>, "GET", Req0).

Header names must be a lowercase binary.

Do not use this function for setting cookies. Refer to the Cookies chapter for more information.

To check if a response header has already been set:

cowboy_req:has_resp_header(<<"allow">>, Req).

It returns true if the header was set, false otherwise.

To delete a response header that was set previously:

Req = cowboy_req:delete_resp_header(<<"allow">>, Req0).

Overriding headers

As Cowboy provides different ways of setting response headers and body, clashes may occur, so it's important to understand what happens when a header is set twice.

Headers come from five different origins:

  • Protocol-specific headers (for example HTTP/1.1's connection header)
  • Other required headers (for example the date header)
  • Preset headers
  • Headers given to the reply function
  • Set-cookie headers

Cowboy does not allow overriding protocol-specific headers.

Set-cookie headers will always be appended at the end of the list of headers before sending the response.

Headers given to the reply function will always override preset headers and required headers. If a header is found in two or three of these, then the one in the reply function is picked and the others are dropped.

Similarly, preset headers will always override required headers.

To illustrate, look at the following snippet. Cowboy by default sends the server header with the value "Cowboy". We can override it:

Req = cowboy_req:reply(200, #{
    <<"server">> => <<"yaws">>
}, Req0).

Preset response body

Cowboy provides functions to set the response body without immediately sending it. It is stored in the Req object and sent when the reply function is called.

To set the response body:

Req = cowboy_req:set_resp_body("Hello world!", Req0).

To check if a response body has already been set:

cowboy_req:has_resp_body(Req).

It returns true if the body was set and is non-empty, false otherwise.

The preset response body is only sent if the reply function used is cowboy_req:reply/2 or cowboy_req:reply/3.

Sending files

Cowboy provides a shortcut for sending files. When using cowboy_req:reply/4, or when presetting the response header, you can give a sendfile tuple to Cowboy:

{sendfile, Offset, Length, Filename}

Depending on the values for Offset or Length, the entire file may be sent, or just a part of it.

The length is required even for sending the entire file. Cowboy sends it in the content-length header.

To send a file while replying:

Req = cowboy_req:reply(200, #{
    <<"content-type">> => "image/png"
}, {sendfile, 0, 12345, "path/to/logo.png"}, Req0).

Informational responses

Cowboy allows you to send informational responses.

Informational responses are responses that have a status code between 100 and 199. Any number can be sent before the proper response. Sending an informational response does not change the behavior of the proper response, and clients are expected to ignore any informational response they do not understand.

The following snippet sends a 103 informational response with some headers that are expected to be in the final response.

Req = cowboy_req:inform(103, #{
    <<"link">> => <<"</style.css>; rel=preload; as=style, </script.js>; rel=preload; as=script">>
}, Req0).

Push

The HTTP/2 protocol introduced the ability to push resources related to the one sent in the response. Cowboy provides two functions for that purpose: cowboy_req:push/3,4.

Push is only available for HTTP/2. Cowboy will automatically ignore push requests if the protocol doesn't support it.

The push function must be called before any of the reply functions. Doing otherwise will result in a crash.

To push a resource, you need to provide the same information as a client performing a request would. This includes the HTTP method, the URI and any necessary request headers.

Cowboy by default only requires you to give the path to the resource and the request headers. The rest of the URI is taken from the current request (excluding the query string, set to empty) and the method is GET by default.

The following snippet pushes a CSS file that is linked to in the response:

cowboy_req:push("/static/style.css", #{
    <<"accept">> => <<"text/css">>
}, Req0),
Req = cowboy_req:reply(200, #{
    <<"content-type">> => <<"text/html">>
}, ["<html><head><title>My web page</title>",
    "<link rel='stylesheet' type='text/css' href='/static/style.css'>",
    "<body><p>Welcome to Erlang!</p></body></html>"], Req0).

To override the method, scheme, host, port or query string, simply pass in a fourth argument. The following snippet uses a different host name:

cowboy_req:push("/static/style.css", #{
    <<"accept">> => <<"text/css">>
}, #{host => <<"cdn.example.org">>}, Req),

Pushed resources don't have to be files. As long as the push request is cacheable, safe and does not include a body, the resource can be pushed.

Under the hood, Cowboy handles pushed requests the same as normal requests: a different process is created which will ultimately send a response to the client.

Cowboy 2.6 User Guide

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