Build Erlang releases with and Relx

2013 28 May

Building OTP releases has always been a difficult task. Tools like Reltool or Rebar have made this simpler, but it's no panacea. This article will show you an alternative and hopefully much simpler solution.

There is two steps to building a release. First you need to build the various OTP applications you want to include in the release. Once done, you need to create the release itself, by including the Erlang runtime system alongside the applications, a boot script to start the node and all its applications, and some configuration files. solves the first step. It is an include file for GNU Make. Just including it in a Makefile is enough to allow building your project, fetching and building dependencies, building documentation, performing static analysis and more.

Relx solves the second step. It is a release creation tool, wrapped into a single executable file. It doesn't require a configuration file. And if you do need one, it will be a pretty small one.

Let's take a look at the smallest powered Makefile. There is only one thing required: defining the project name.

source-highlight: could not find a language definition for make

Simply doing this allows you to build your application by typing make, running tests using make tests, and more. It will even compile your .dtl files found in the templates/ directory if you are using ErlyDTL!

Let's now take a look at a simplified version of the Makefile for this website. I only removed a few targets that were off-topic.

source-highlight: could not find a language definition for make

You can see here how to define dependencies. First you list all the dependency names, then you have one line per dependency, giving the repository URL and the commit number, tag or branch you want.

Then you can see two targets defined, with release becoming the default target, because it was defined first. You can override the default target all, which builds the application and its dependencies, this way.

And as you can see, the release target uses Relx to build a release into the rel/ninenines/ directory. Let's take a look at the configuration file for this release.

{release, {ninenines, "1"}, [ninenines]}.

{extended_start_script, true}.
{sys_config, "rel/sys.config"}.

{overlay, [
	{mkdir, "log"},
	{copy, "rel/vm.args",

The first line defines a release named ninenines, which has a version number "1" and includes one application, also named ninenines, although it doesn't have to.

We then use the extended_start_script option to tell Relx that we would like to have a start script that allows us to not only start the release, but do so with the node in the background, or also to allow us to connect to a running node, and so on. This start script has the same features as the one tools like Rebar generates.

The rest of the file just makes sure our configuration files are where we expect them. Relx will automatically take care of your sys.config file as long as you tell it where to find it. The vm.args file used by the extended start script needs to be handled more explicitly by using an overlay however.

How does Relx find what applications to include? By looking at the application dependencies in the .app file of each OTP application. Make sure you put all dependencies in there, including library applications, and Relx will find everything for you.

For example, this release includes the following applications. Only what's strictly required.

compiler-4.9.1	crypto-2.3     kernel-2.16.1	ranch-0.8.3    syntax_tools-1.6.11
cowboy-0.8.5	erlydtl-0.7.0  ninenines-0.2.0	stdlib-1.19.1

The sys.config file is standard and well documented. The vm.args file is just an optionally multiline file containing all the flags to pass to the Erlang VM, for example -name [email protected] -heart.

Building OTP releases has always been a difficult task. Until now.